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Infrared Imaging Abstracts for 2002 - 2003

The following Abstracts of journal literature and patent specifications are taken, with kind permission, from Imaging Abstracts, published by Pira International on behalf of The Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain.

The abstracts are Copyright © 1997-2004 Pira International on behalf of the RPS. Original documents are in English unless otherwise stated. For further information on Imaging Abstracts, which is available on paper, online and on CD-ROM, contact Pira International or email

This page will be updated as more abstracts are published in Imaging Abstracts, which is produced bi-monthly. The abstracts published here are those which cover aspects of Infrared imaging and therefore there is no guarantee that every edition of Imaging Abstracts will provide new abstracts for this page. These abstracts are published here for informational purposes only and no liability can be accepted for the accuracy of the information given or any use that is made of it.

Updated: 22.10.2004 - Other Abstracts: 1993-5, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999-2001
[New abstracts are added at the bottom of the document.]


Patent: Positive-Working Photographic Material for Infrared Radiation

Miyake H, Kawauchi I (Fuji Photo Film Co)
US 6,340,551 22.01.02

A positive-working photographic material designed for exposure with an infrared laser consists of a substrate bearing (a) a layer containing at least 50 weight % of a copolymer which includes at least 10 mol % of at least one of the following monomers - a sulphonamide derivative, a derivative with an active imino group, or an acrylamide (or similar compound) with a phenolic hydroxy group, and (b) a layer containing at least 50 weight % of an alkaline-solution soluble resin with phenolic hydroxy groups. There is also present a compound which generates heat on absorbing light.

Patent: Optical Recording Layer, Infrared Sensitive

Chen H D, Chen T T, Williams K W (Eastman Kodak Co)
US 6,561,916 26.03.02

A coating composition which is suitable for the provision of an infrared sensitive optical recording layer employs a latex with water as its continuous phase, and hydrophobic polymer particles as the disperse phase. These particles include an infrared radiation absorbing dye, and a stabilizer for this dye.

IR: the Hottest Technology in Military Imaging

Hindus L A
Adv. Imag. vol. 17, no. 4, April 2002, pp 28-29,54

Developments in military applications of infrared (IR) imaging technology are discussed. A major area for development is the integration of visible light and IR imaging: the former captures reflected radiation, whereas the latter captures emitted radiation, and the combination of the two is useful in applications such as human identification, tracking, surveillance and monitoring. Equinox Corporation has developed a system for recognising human faces by means of IR radiation, which are far less sensitive to ambient illumination than are systems based on visible light. Other applications discussed include an aerial reconnaissance system and a system for distinguishing thermal decoys from actual targets.

Mapping Chinese Tallow with Color-Infrared Photography

Ramsey E W, Nelson G A, Sapkota S K, Seeger E B, Martella K D (National Wetlands Research Center US Geological Survey USA, Johnson Controls World Services USA)
Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing vol. 68, no. 3, Mar 2002, pp 251-255

Airborne colour-infrared photography (CIR) (1:12,000 scale) was used to map localized occurrences of the invasive species Chinese tallow Sapium sebiferum. Photographs were collected during senescence, when Chinese tallow's bright-red leaves gave a high contrast within native species. Mapped occurrences were conservative, because not all senescing tallow leaves are bright red at the same time. To simulate low-spectral, but high-spatial resolution, satellite/airborne image and digital video data, the CIR photographs were transformed into raster images. Classification accuracies were greater than 95% at spatial resolutions of 0.5 and 1.0 m. High spatial, but low spectral, resolution remote-sensing data can be used to map Chinese tallow trees in dominant environments found in coastal and adjacent upland landscapes. 16 refs.

Oxygen and Lattice Distortion in Multicrystalline Silicon

Moller H J, Funke C, Lawerenz A, Riedel S, Werner M (Tech Univ Bergakademie Freiberg Germany)
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells vol. 72, nos. 1-4, 2002, pp 403-416

Oxygen is formed during the production of multicrystalline material for use in photovoltaic applications, and an investigation is described using both transmission electron microscopy and scanning infrared microscopy for the study of the mechanism of its formation, and possible means for its avoidance. 10 refs.

Patent: Infrared Camera Sensitive for Infrared Radiation

Hamrelius U, Lannestedt S (Flir Systems AB)
WO 02 091735 14.11.02

An infrared camera includes a detector sensitive to infrared radiation and an optical system for focusing the image of an object to be monitored on the detector. A light source emits a narrow beam of radiation within the visible region towards the object to be imaged by the detector.

Testing the Sensitivity of a MODIS-Like Daytime Active Fire Detection Model in Alaska Using NOAA/AVHRR Infrared Data

Seielstad C A, Riddering J P, Brown S R, Queen L P, Hao W M (Remote Sensing Lab Univ Montana School Forestry Missoula USA, Fire Sciences Lab Rocky Mountain Res Station USDA Forestry Services Missoula USA)
Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing vol. 68, no. 8, Aug 2002, pp 831-838

A MODIS-like, daytime, active, fire-detection model using NOAA-AVHRR infrared data was tested in Alaskan biomes, and its performance was assessed across a range of channel 3 (3.8 µm) brightness temperature and contextual standard deviation thresholds. Absolute thresholding of channel 3 and the channel 3/4 difference was more effective than contextual analysis in minimizing false detections, although detection sensitivity to actual fire pixels was lower. False detections increased exponentially and detections of active fires increased linearly as thresholds were loosened. Each biome or region may require different thresholds to optimize the performance of the algorithm. Effective cloud removal is clearly the most significant issue facing this type of fire-detection method. 31 refs.

High-frequency Near-field Microscopy

Rosner B T, van der Weide D W (Wisconsin University USA)
Rev. Sci. Instrum. vol. 73, no. 7, 2002, pp 2505-2525

A review with 289 references surveys progress made in near-field microscopy with radiation wavelengths from near-infrared to radio frequency. The nature of the techniques employed, and their practical applications, are covered in detail

Compact Mid-wavelength Infrared Zoom Camera with 20:1 Zoom Range and Automatic Athermalization

Kim H S, Kim C W, Hong S M (Agency for Defence Dev Daejon South Korea)
Opt. Eng. vol. 41, no. 7, 2002, pp 1661-1667

An infrared camera designed for the mid-wavelength IR range, with a zooming range of 20:1 was described. The lens contained only two lens groups, and the instrument has been subjected to athermalization, so that it could be operated over the temperature range of -30 to +55 deg. 12 refs

Patent: Method and Apparatus for Providing an Infrared Image

Guldenvall U (Flir Systems AB)
WO 02 104010 27.12.02

Infrared images with good resolution and accuracy can be obtained both for room temperature and high temperature scenes simultaneously. Temperature differences can be presented with good resolution throughout a large temperature range.

Very High Resolution Near-field Chemical Imaging using an Infrared Free Electron Laser

Cricenti A, Generosi R, Luce M, Perfetti P, Margaritondo G (Ist di Stuttura della Materia Roma Lesotho)
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. vol. 4, no. 12, 2002, pp 2738-2741

A novel high resolution procedure has been devised for imaging at high resolution with infrared radiation of both thin films and biological specimens. A spectroscopic version of SNOM was employed, which was coupled to the Vanderbilt free electron laser tunable IR radiation source. Some of the results obtained were described. 21 refs.

Transient Photoinduced Diffractive Solid Immersion Lens for Infrared Microscopy

Cohn K, Simanovskii D, Smith T, Palanker D (Stanford University USA)
Appl. Phys. Lett. vol. 81, no. 19, 2002, pp 3678-3680

Transient solid immersion lenses have been produced by photoinducing a zone plate on a semiconductor wafer; gallium phosphide and silicon wafers have been used with different numbers of zones, and the lenses had a lifetime exceeding 50 ps. Their use in scanning near-field infrared microscopy was described. 14 refs.

Patent: Infrared Camera

Ookawa N (Mitsubishi Denki KK)
US 6,504,155 07.01.03

An infrared camera is described which is capable of being used over a wide range of temperatures. It includes a series of circuits, each of which is designed to control the camera operation over a specific temperature range; there is also present a temperature sensor, which determines the temperature range prevailing and selects the circuit appropriate to that range.

Focal-plane Arrays Open New Near-infrared Vistas

Richards A (Indigo Systems Corp Goleta CA USA)
Adv. Imag. vol. 18, no. 3, Mar. 2003, pp 14-18

Recent technological developments have allowed the production of highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) cameras that deliver image quality with a spectral sensitivity in the 900-1700nm band. These cameras depend on the commercially available indium-gallium-arsenide (InGaAs) focal-plane array photovoltaic detectors, as well as the availability of higher-quality III-V semiconductor material in bulk wafers. Potential applications include laser-beam characterisation, agricultural and petrochemical inspection, forensics and NIR imaging spectroscopy. Indigo Systems offers three InGaAs cameras with varying levels of performance for various applications. The Phoenix NIR camera enables the user to select exposure times as short as several microseconds and as long as 660 milliseconds, allowing it to be used for a wide range of levels of illumination.

Patent: Image Thermal Characteristics Displayed

Alicandro C J, Poirier B A (Flir Systems Boston)
US 6,606,115 12.08.03

An Airspot Mode technique is described for an infrared camera, whereby the hottest spot in an infrared scene can be automatically identified and tracked, captured and displayed. At the same time the appropriate temperature is indicated. These data are automatically updated for successive frames. For the Delta Mode, the difference in temperature between two indicated points in the scene can be displayed.

An Analysis of the Spatial Homogeneity of a Photodetector Surface in an Infrared Image Converter using the Fractal Dimension

Salamov B G, Kurt H Y, Kurt E (Gazi University Ankara Turkey, University of Bayreuth Germany)
Imag. Sci. J. vol. 51, no. 4, 2003, pp 187-197

A method is presented of analyzing the spatial homogeneity of a 100 mm diameter photo-detector surface, by determining the spatial distribution of the gas discharge light emission of an ionization type IR image convertor, using a GaAs photodetector. The fractal dimension of the light emission is found when a current passes through the cell, and the procedure offers a useful NDT means which employs the whole surface of the photodetector. 36 refs.

Geometric Calibration Models of Infrared Cameras and Scanners for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing Applications

Buyuksalih G (Karaelmas University Zonguldak Turkey)
Opt. Eng. vol. 42, no. 7, 2003, pp 1923-1934

Three types of infrared imager are distinguished, (a) the pyroelectric vidicon camera, (b) the CCD camera with a 2-D array, and (c) the thermal video frame scanner. Technologies for the calibration of such devices for both photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes are discussed in detail. 26 refs.

* More background on infrared photography
Technical background Thermal Imaging NASA IR Video Camera
IR 'Colour' Mapping Noctovision  
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